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Content Updated: 3rd March 2017

SEASONAL UPDATE: March 2017

Spring snowdrops

These days it seems that I start a lot of homepage updates by saying something along the lines of ‘it has been a very changeable month weather-wise’, and last month was no different. February started on a fairly bright note, but we experienced some very cold air early in the month and even had a flurry of snow here in Southampton during the second week, with significant falls in the midland and northern England/Scotland. The cold spell was short-lived, however, and by the middle of the month temperatures in the south were hovering around the 13C (55F) mark; about 5C (9F) above the seasonal average. Things got warmer still when a south-westerly airflow brought Caribbean air to Britain, causing temperatures in the mid-teens Celsius. Capel Curig in Snowdonia, Wales, awoke to temperatures of 16C (61F) on 20th February, the seasonal average for dawn being about 3C (37F), and London reached 18.5C (65F) on the same day. To round the month off, ‘Storm Doris’ brought strong winds and heavy rain to Britain, with winds reaching 50-60 mph in the south and 70-80mph in the north – a 94mph gust was recorded in Capel Curig. February ended on a generally mild, wet and windy note, with weather models suggesting March is set to start in the same vein. There are, nonetheless, a couple of models suggesting we could be in for a cold spell this month, bringing the chance of more widespread snow. Watch this space.

If you want to get out and about this month, as usual, the Wildlife Trusts have a series of nature-themed events up and down the country, as do the RSPB. If you feel like being proactive this month and live near the coast, Surfers Against Sewage are looking for people to organise cleans of their local beaches – details here. The Forest Commission are running a series of events this month (full list here), including a ‘Keep Your Forest Clean’ litter pick in the New Forest on the 3rd March and a ‘Wilderness Survival Skills’ course on 26th March in Hamsterley Forest in County Durham. There are also a couple of wildlife surveys still open and looking for people to submit their sightings, including The Big Hedgehog Map and the British Deer Survey. Alternatively, if your plans only include a walk in your local woods or park, let’s look at what you might expect to see this month.

New Forest Roe deer in velvetMammals: March is the busiest month of the fox calendar, being the month in which most cubs are born. Some foxes will have given birth at the end of last month, but the zenith for births is mid-March here in Britain. For the first couple of days after giving birth, the vixen will stay in the earth with the cubs to keep them warm. Once the cubs are three or four days old, she’ll leave for short periods to drink and collect food, but the cubs are dependent on an adult for warmth for the first couple of weeks, and the vixen will never be far away. As the vixen is effectively tied to the den during this time, she is heavily reliant on food provided by her mate and, in some situations, extended family members. Indeed, March and April are good months to go fox-watching because the adults (father and helpers) are often more active during the daytime as they hunt for themselves and the vixen and cubs. Many badger sows will also either have given birth recently or will do so this month, but it’ll be a couple of months before we see any badger cubs above ground. Badgers, unlike foxes, use bedding material (dried grass in particular) in their sett and this allows the sow to leave her cubs sooner and for longer periods than vixens, meaning she can be a more independent mother.

I know some wildlife rescues that have had hedgehog babies handed in already this year, earlier than they typically start to receive them. Ordinarily, hedgehogs would be rousing from hibernation now, with the males first out. Males enter hibernation earlier than females and we think that coming out earlier allows them to feed up and put on weight in preparation for the breeding season to commence when the female emerge. The rapidly fluctuating winter temperatures of late appear to have upset that rhythm, so we appear to be seeing earlier breeding activity than normal. I also know of at least one rescue with a brown hare leveret, although this is less unusual as the hare breeding season is well underway.

When male hares detect a doe is coming into oestrus, they gather around her and she may be shadowed by them for five days prior to coming into season. The doe will often try to escape her suitors, leading them on considerable chases around the fields. As the chases get underway, the bucks jostle for position near the doe and a hierarchy appears to develop. The dominant buck typically remains within about five metres (16 ft) of the doe’s daytime form and will bite and chase other bucks that get too close. As the female gets closer to oestrous she attracts more bucks and, despite the dominant buck’s best endeavours, she may be harassed. Periodically, during this chase, two hares can often be seen rising up on to their back legs and jabbing at each other with their forepaws: this is a behaviour referred to as “boxing”. Early naturalists believed that boxing hares were competing males but, although bucks do occasionally box with each other, in the majority of instances the boxing is a doe rebuking the overzealous attentions of a buck. Now, the observation that hares are mad in March, rather than any other month, is largely a feature of circumstance. The hare’s breeding season runs from January to October and by late February most does are either pregnant or suckling their first litter, so these ‘mad’ mating chases and boxing happen during the winter too. By March, however, two important things happen: the nights have contracted such that more of this breeding activity spills over into daylight; and there are more people about in the countryside to witness the behaviour. So, despite hare boxing and chasing during both January and February, it was not until March that many early naturalists observed the behaviour, hence these endearing mammals became known as ‘mad March hares’.

Grebe courtship danceElsewhere, roe deer are completing their antler growth (above) now and red, fallow and sika will begin to cast theirs. Water voles are resuming activity now, having spent much of the winter confined to their underground burrow systems, and March sees the first squirrel kitten births of the year.

Birds: When we get a bit of sunshine and warmth, the songs of blackbirds and robins in the garden make the late afternoon feel almost summery, while the calls of wrens, dunnocks, blue-tits and chaffinches filled the Cornish countryside last weekend. March is the month when I avidly listen for my first skylark of the year, and the local woodland is now starting to ring with the drumming of greater spotted woodpeckers and the maniacal yaffles of the green woodpecker. The first migrant birds, such as wheatears and chiffchaff, are arriving, along with some of the ‘leggier’ waders  including curlew. Long-tailed tits are busy nest-building, and there are even a few blackbirds that appear to be collecting nesting material at the moment. Some of our winter visitors here in the south are still around, including hen harriers, marsh harriers and a few great grey shrikes, and there are still some sizable flocks of redwing and fieldfare to be found. Here in the New Forest, the resident goshawks are starting to show signs of breeding, and the buzzards are starting their calling and territorial displaying. Many tawny owls will be on eggs at the moment and March represents the peak of the grey heron breeding season. If you’re down at your local pond or lakes this month, keep an eye out for courtship displays in the swans and geese.

Ponds and lakes are good spots to look out for the breeding display of the great crested grebe this month. This ritual is enthralling to watch. The birds will face each other on the water and shake heads, before rubbing them over their back feathers. In many instances, the display goes no further and the pair separate. As the season progresses, however, we start to see some successful pairing and the display is completed. The crescendo of the ritual involves the birds separating before each dives and resurfaces with a beak full of weed – they then charge at one another, standing up in the water to face each other at the last minute (splashing water everywhere as they kick to stay afloat) and turning their heads in opposite directions, shaking the weed (right). Much further north, March heralds the peak of the breeding season of the black grouse in north Wales, northern England and the Highlands of Scotland, with spectacular displays and fights among the male birds as they vie for the attentions of the females.

Reptiles and amphibians: The very mild end to winter has triggered a surge in spawning frogs, with ditches across the New Forest full of spawn in the latter part of last month – we had two lots of spawn in our tiny garden pond at the end of last month. Toads will begin to spawn this month, having returned to their ancestral breeding ponds from their hibernation sites, and newts will follow later in the spring. Please report frog and toad activity to the FrogLife charity via the DragonFinder app (http://www.froglife.org/dragonfinder/app/).

I have seen several photos of adders and grass snakes out and about in the last couple of weeks. Males are usually the first to emerge from hibernation and, as spring wears on, they will disperse far and wide in the search of females with which to mate. Once emerged, both sexes will hang around in the vicinity of the hibernaculum but neither will feed until they have sloughed (shed their skin), after which normal service resumes.

Arum lilyInvertebrates: Peacock, small tortoiseshell, comma and brimstone butterflies can be found during calm and sunny spells, and the aptly-named March moth is about this month. I have seen a few buff-tailed bumblebees around, too. Keep an eye out for the furry ‘ginger bee’ darting over flowers in sunlit woodlands, parks and gardens – these are greater bee-flies and, in our garden, they are particularly fond of forget-me-nots. I have also seen a few caterpillars around, and some to keep an eye out for this month are: the stick-like swallow-tailed moth on hawthorn, ivy, privet and other shrubs; the striking yellow and black spotted six-spot burnet moth in open grassland, wide verges and waste ground feeding on bird’s foot-trefoil; and the blue-grey and orange caterpillars of the lackey moth, which are widespread in the south of England and hang out in webs spun in hedgerows towards the end of this month. The spiders in and around the house and garden have resumed normal service and we should see some wolf spiders out and about this month. Hoverflies are also a more common sight now as are shield bugs and ladybirds.

Plants and fungi: There are a variety of wild flowers (not to mention some cultivated escapees) to be found in roadside banks and verges this month. Daffodils are in full bloom and I have seen several sizeable patches of snow drops. There are some primroses around too, as well as campion and some crocuses to add a splash of colour. Streams and ditches are good places to look for newly emerged butterbur flowers, with their striking purple blossoms arranged in pyramidal fashion.

Old stone walls offer a great opportunity to look for delicate ferns and mosses, while the first sweet violet and lesser celandine are now starting to flower, adding a dash of purple and shining yellow, respectively, to our woodlands. Sallow catkins are a draw for many insects and the foul-smelling arum lily (also known as lords and ladies - left) is evident this month. These unpleasantly-scented plants comprise a purple/yellow-coloured rod-like structure (called a spadix) partially enclosed by a pale sheath (spathe), and are reliant on insects (particularly flies and midges) for pollination. They have a rather unique way of making sure their targets leave with pollen, too - the rancid smell, generated by the tip of the spadix as it gets warm, lures flies that slide down the shiny walls of the spathe into a ‘holding cell’ at the base of the sheath from which they’re prevented from climbing out by a fringe of fine hair-like projections at the top of the chamber. The stamens open and dust the flies with a shower of pollen; the flies then move around in the chamber, carrying pollen from the male cluster at the top to the larger female flowers at the bottom. Shortly afterwards, the hairs begin to wither and die and the flies can eventually escape their prison. Once fertilised, the female flowers become an intriguing cluster of bright orange and scarlet berries which can be seen later in the summer.

Fungi-wise, the bright yellow brain fungus, the delicate parasolic porcelain fungus and the dark brown convolution that is the Jews’ ear fungus are waiting to be found this month.

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Discovery of the Month: Bird feeders may increase local nest predation

Grey squirrel on bird feederBritain is generally considered to be a nation of animal lovers, and many of us extend this beyond our family pets to the wildlife that inhabits our gardens. According to the British Trust for Ornithology, three-quarters of British households feed their garden birds at some point during the year and, in 2006, the bird feeding industry was worth an estimated £200 million per year – it’s likely to be worth much more now, although there are no official figures. An estimate, published in 2015, suggested that enough food was put out every year to feed some 30 million birds. Putting out food can be a life-saver for many species, particularly during the autumn and winter months when food can be hard to find. We know that feeding the birds can improve the survival of adults, alter their movements, and increase the number of chicks fledged successfully. Indeed, a 2008 study found that birds provided with supplementary food only during the winter (stopping six weeks before the breeding season began) fledged 15% more chicks than those that weren’t given extra food.

Many of us that regularly feed the birds know that doing so can incur unwanted attention. Mice, rats, squirrels and predators such as sparrowhawks are common visitors to garden bird feeders. Recent research from the UK suggests that the attraction of some of these non-target species to feeders may affect the rates of nearby nest predation, resulting in overall fewer clutches fledging. During May and June 2014, a team of researchers led by Mark Fellowes studied how the presence of guarded (squirrel-proof), unguarded and empty bird feeders affected the number of nests raided by predators near the University of Reading’s Whiteknights Campus. The biologists successfully monitored 102 experimental nests, 74 (72%) of which were predated by magpies, jays and squirrels. Nests near filled feeders (guarded and unguarded) were significantly more likely to be predated than those near empty feeders. In terms of feeder use, grey squirrels were the nest predators most likely to use feeders. Interestingly, though, despite being attracted to and seen using the unguarded feeders, grey squirrels predated the fewest nests – only eight (11%). Magpies visited the feeders in low numbers but were identified in half of all nest predations. Jays were the most surprising nest predator association – they hardly ever visited the feeders, but accounted for almost 40% of the nest predations. Overall, survivorship of nests placed adjacent to filled feeders was less than 20% that of nests adjacent to empty feeders and, writing in their paper to the journal Ibis last year, the researchers concluded:

Taken together, these results suggest that feeder usage by nest predators is associated with increased predation on our experimental nests, but this effect is not simply a result of nest predators being attracted to a point source but perhaps also being attracted by other feeder users to the vicinity of the food source.”

The authors recommend people use guarded feeders so as not to support local predator populations and consider whether feeding during the breeding season is necessary, or if providing food can only be done during the autumn and winter.

Reference: Hanmer, H.J. et al. (2016). Provision of supplementary food for wild birds may increase the risk of local nest predation. Ibis. 159: 158-167.

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Profile of the Month: Wendy Cooper (Wildlife Photographer)

Wendy Cooper: Wild boarTell us a little about yourself.
I’m Wendy Cooper and hail from Great Dunmow in North Essex. I work full time as a Finance Manager for a Chartered Landscape Architect’s practice, but at any given opportunity I am out and about nature-watching on my local patch, or further afield when time allows.

When did you first realise that you had a talent for photography?
When I was in my twenties (about thirty years ago!) we lived near North Weald airfield and regularly attended the airshows there and just up the road at Duxford. My Dad gave me his Pentax ME Super and also a 30-70mm lens, so I filled many a photo album with (quite frankly pretty awful) snapshots of aircraft mid-display, always trying to do better, but didn’t have a clue as to what I was doing… That was back in the days of film, so it was an expensive exercise!

Time passed, during which the camera was put away. Then, after buying a digital bridge camera, I decided to try and learn how to take better photographs. By now we had moved into a more rural location with a swathe of wood and farmland right on our doorstep; recalling a love of birdwatching from my childhood, I decided that the most available subjects to practice on were the local birds and wildlife.

After a while, the bridge camera did not suffice, so I bought a digital SLR and a book and set about seriously working at it – controlling the camera, as little automatic input as possible, composition and so forth; as I did this and continued observing my subjects, I became more and more curious about them and started to learn about their lives and habits. Slowly, the photography improved to where I was not embarrassed to share the images as well.

My first real learning curve with the camera was about five years ago, when I spent a lot of time hiding in a tangle of brambles, watching and photographing my first ever pair of Great Spotted Woodpeckers as they raised their young. Out of the hundreds of shots that I took of them and their neighbours, I realised that possibly I might be able to get quite good with the camera…..
Nowadays, I think I can take some acceptably decent photographs, but I am my own harshest critic and look up to many other Nature photographers. I am always trying to improve on the quality of what I produce.

What drives and/or inspires you to photograph?
Whilst I watched the woodpeckers, I also got to watch a pair of Greens in the neighbouring tree, curious squirrels and any number of smaller birds. Curiosity got the better of me and a serious interest in natural history was ignited.

Now, I’m not one for note books and I cannot draw for toffee, so the camera came too, to wherever we went where there was wildlife; it became the notebook and still is. From any one of my photographs, I can most likely tell you where, when, how I felt, what the weather was doing, and what else I saw that day – the photos are almost a memory I can share. I have followed nature falling asleep in the autumn and waking up again in the spring; all the birds and plants and then the emergence of the insect world through the summer, so I now have a few years’ worth of a pictorial nature diary for various locations as well as my local patch – there is so much beauty out there and a notebook for me would not do it justice, so now I keep trying to do just that with the camera.

Wendy Cooper: OystercatchersThe ‘photo-diary’ has gone a step further and I now keep a blog with trip and seasonal updates describing what I have seen, a bit about some of the species, as well as plenty of photographs!

I don’t just photograph it all though, I try and learn about what I am photographing, whether plant, insect, bird or animal. Each of them has a place and I love seeing how it all fits together.

What subjects do you enjoy working with most and why?
Through the winter months I love photographing birds and any mammals I can find. In the summer, whilst the birds are all busy raising young or going through a moult, my attention turns to the miniature world of butterflies, dragonflies, bees; in fact any of the insects. Everything I photograph is in the wild, going about its natural business. I’m just an observer. The closest I come to ‘baited’ poses is when I photograph the birds visiting my back garden, enticed there by the feeders.

I like the challenge of birds in flight – particularly for raptors (the Marsh Harriers and Short Eared Owls, or a Kestrel on the hover) although Egrets and Herons are beautiful to watch as well.
I also like playing a little with whatever natural light there is and focussing on little details, whether it is flowers, fungi, foliage, frost, spiders’ webs.

In other words, all things nature related and the whole spectrum, whether it is our ‘everyday’ species or the few opportunities I may get to photograph and watch some of the less ‘everyday’.

If you had to pick one of your pictures that was your favourite, which one would it be and why?
Every time I go out my favourite photograph changes because of the moment I have captured. Last year I managed to observe and photograph a Kingfisher at close quarters for the first time, those images bring to mind a quiet day wandering in late summer around a favourite nature reserve; also from the same day, a close encounter or two with Chinese Water Deer (below, left).

Earlier in the year we went to Mull for the first time. No eagles to be found, but I saw my first Hen Harrier; the photo is awful, but it brings to mind me trying not to dance on the spot as I watched it briefly quarter then fly off. The best photographs are not always the best quality; sometimes they represent a special moment.

I also have a soft spot for Wild Boar (top), in the wild… so whenever we visit the Forest of Dean we try to see some. This photograph represents quite a few hours lurking quietly at this location and utter delight at being only a few metres away from this beautiful, powerful and intelligent animal. A real privilege.

Wendy Cooper: Chinese water deerCurrently, two of my favourites are from the North Norfolk Coast. One is a group of Oystercatchers in flight along the shoreline (above, right) – shortly afterwards they landed and proceeded to squabble and chatter amongst themselves, as only they can. The other one is a Bar-tailed Godwit probing the sand at the water’s edge, with two more scooting past in the background.

If you could photograph anything in the world, what would it be and why?
It’s more a case of what I have on my wish list, species wise, to watch than photograph… I have a hankering to watch White Tailed Eagles, Otters, Badgers, a family of Foxes, Hares, our native reptiles, a Hoopoe, the list could go on! For me, a photograph is a bonus and captures a moment.

As my husband will not fly, it is unlikely I will ever get to, say, Africa, Costa Rica or Asia to watch their wildlife, however, the United Kingdom has its own riches, so to watch and record and learn what we have here suffices for me.

If you had one piece of advice for budding photographers, what would it be?
I would have two pieces of advice for any budding photographer!

One thing I learned early on with my subject matter was that I needed to observe and learn their habits and movements so that I could get the best chance of photographing them; so be quiet and patient, learn your subject and field craft – the animal’s welfare comes first and photo’s second.

The other piece of advice would be to know your equipment and how it works to get the best out of it – it’s not the camera that takes the picture, it is you, so you need to know how to get the camera to take the picture you want. (i.e. it’s not what you’ve got, it’s what you do with it – the most expensive camera and lens in the world will not help you take a good photograph if you do not know how to use it!)

You can see more of Wendy’s superb photos on her Flickr photostream and she also has a website showcasing some of her work as well as including a blog of her trips.

Wendy Cooper: Fen sunset

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As always, I love hearing from readers; any queries or comments regarding the information on the site can be sent in using the addresses on the Contact page. (Note: So: Some website questions are answered on the FAQ, while many animal-related questions are covered in the Q/A). Photos can be e-mailed to a dedicated e-mail address - please keep them coming and don't forget to check out my Photos Needed page. I'm also interested in hearing any reports of unusual behaviour in any of the animals featured on this site, or interactions between humans and wildlife. Thanks as always for your continued patience and support. Thanks this month to Roger Powley for his stunning snowdrop (banner) and arum lily photos.

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WildlifeonlineOkay, for those of you that are new to the site, let's take it from the top!

What is Wildlife Online?
Essentially, WLOL is an educational website about British wildlife. The site contains profiles of various British animal species, with new articles in preparation all the time. The site also has articles looking at wildlife-related subjects, including hunting and animal emotions. This site is purely a hobby of mine; it does not generate any money or contain any advertising and, for the time being at least, I am happy for it to stay that way.

What does Wildlife Online aim to achieve?
The ultimate goal of the website is to be useful. My intention has always been to provide un-biased, accurate information that’s accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. Increasingly people are coming into contact with their local wildlife and whether such interactions are positive or negative, they generally inspire a desire to learn more about the species. Moreover, there are still a great many misconceptions surrounding our wildlife (fox behaviour springs immediately to mind) and these are brought up time and time again during discussions in the media. Each article aims to provide a reasonably comprehensive overview of the species in question by drawing on information from the media, books, TV programmes and the scientific literature. I feel that this combination of sources, along with my own observations and those of my friends/colleagues/readers provides a unique online resource of British wildlife information. My hope is that the information provided here will go some way to changing people's perceptions of the creatures with which they share their parks and gardens.

Why create a website when there are books and TV programmes about your subjects?
Books can be a fantastic resource and I can't imagine being without my library. Not all libraries are, however, equally well stocked, and not everyone has the funds to splash out on what are often very expensive wildlife books (especially those written by scientists). More importantly, much of the scientific research never makes it out of the journals into books and TV shows. Similarly, many of the early books -- which contain some of the pioneering work on the species -- are now long out of print and can be difficult or expensive to track down. Books have the 'luxury' of being able to devote their entire contents to a particular species, covering all aspects of its life history. Television, by contrast, is a much more limited and variable medium: the programme editor(s) has to create a show that is likely to hold the viewers' attention and appeal to a very wide audience. The result is that, although some reach this compromise very well, many documentaries focus heavily on the 'wow factor' (multitudinous slow motion shots of Great whites leaping out of the water in pursuit of seals, for example) and this often comes at the inevitable expense of the information about the animal. Finally, both books and TV programmes go out of date quite quickly; new research is being conducted all the time. Consequently, a website is an ideal and dynamic intermediate - it offers the opportunity to provide a decent amount of information about the subject that can be updated at the metaphorical drop-of-a-hat as any new research is published.

Why include so much information?
I honestly believe that if a job is worth doing, it's worth doing well. There are hundreds of websites with brief species profiles and if that's all WLOL offered there would be little point to it. I understand and appreciate that some people find being confronted with large volumes of text very daunting while others are of the 'too long; didn't read' mind-set and will thus be turned off by the amount of text facing them. I have tried to remedy this as far as possible via two avenues: there is a Speed Read section with a brief profile of each species featured in a main article; and each article has been 'virtually split', with the aid of hyperlinks, into sections that allow people to easily jump to the information they're looking for. Ultimately, I want to provide as much information as is feasible in order to provide the reader with the clearest appraisal of each species or topic; I hope that most readers approve of this approach.

Why haven't you included a complete bibliography?
My intention with WLOL is to provide the information in an accessible format, which means that anyone should be able to read an article and understand the information in it. Consequently, I didn't want to format it as a scientific paper because the current format allows for a much more informal approach and writing style which, I hope, will appeal to a wider audience. Most people should find enough information in the article (I typically provide the name or one or more of the authors and the journal and year) to track down the original scientific paper. When I take information from books, I always give the name of the author(s) and the full title of the book for easy reference. I am also happy to provide full details of any of the references upon request.

Are you really qualified to do this?
I'm certainly not an expert on any of the subjects presented on this site. The articles stem from my varied interests in natural history and biological sciences. In terms of qualifications, I trained as a scientist (studying natural sciences at degree and postgraduate level) and all I really do is interpret information, blend it with associated research and personal observation, and present it in what I hope is an accessible format. Unless specifically stated, I do not claim any of the information on this site to be my own research. I have built relationships with some of the many diligent researchers who have produced the data that I use, and I am happy either to recommend an expert or provide my own opinions on a subject.

As a final note, I want to make a quick reference to the quality of the material on the site. The great French philosopher and mathematician, Rene Descartes, once said: "If you would be a real seeker of truth, you first must be willing to doubt as far as possible all things." This is very sage advice, especially when it comes to believing what you read on the Internet. Most Internet sites (indeed, some books and TV shows too), including this one, have no form of peer-review (i.e. nobody with experience of the topic checks the site for accuracy); consequently pretty much anyone can have their own little corner of cyberspace and information can make it onto websites that is either misguided, or downright false! When creating material for this site I take every care to ensure that the information I present is accurate. Invariably errors will creep in; typos are almost inevitable (although each article goes through several levels of proof reading before it appears online) and research is always underway on the species featured here, so the data can go out of date almost overnight. Each page has regular (ish!) reviews, however, during which I update the information, adding details of new findings and taking out that which is now thought highly unlikely. You can see most of the books I have used in the preparation of this site on the Recommended Reading page and I have provided links to some of the most interesting sites I came across during my research – these can be found under the appropriate sub-heading on the Links page.

Anyway, I digress.... I hope you enjoy looking around the site and I hope equally that you get something worthwhile out of it. Any comments, suggestions or (constructive) criticisms are welcome via e-mail - appropriate addresses can be found on the Contact page.

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DISCLAIMER: All the photographs and artwork on this site are either my own work or have been donated by readers. All images remain property of their authors and, if you wish to reproduce any of the pictures, consent must be granted by the appropriate person - requests can be directed via myself or see FAQ. For more details on the content of this site, please see the full WLOL Disclaimer.

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